The agriculture in barani area is confronted with two main problems i.e. soil erosion and water stress. Soil and water are critical natural resources that sustain human life and the lives of all other creatures on outer planet. The careful husbandry of these natural resources is essential for food security and environmental protection. Sustainable use of these resources is imperative to socially, economically and ecologically viable communities. The problem is further accentuated with uncertain behavior of rainfall.
Soil & Water Conservation Research Institute was established in 1989 by the Government of the Punjab to develop technology for controlling soil erosion and conservation of moisture for sustainable and profitable crop production. To evaluate these technologies in different agro-ecological zones of barani (Pothwar) area, Soil & Water Conservation Research Stations were established at Fatehjang and Sohawa in 2004. Now this institute with its stations is continuing its activities in Chakwal, Jhelum, Attock and Rawalpindi districts of Pothwar region.